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"Elevated Lactate Levels in Dogs: A Study Investigating Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies"

發表時間:2023-04-25 13:43作者:欧高军

"Elevated Lactate Levels in Dogs: A Study Investigating Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies"


Introduction:

Lactate is a by-product of anaerobic metabolism and has been recognized as an important biomarker in critical care medicine. Elevated lactate levels in dogs have been associated with several pathological conditions including sepsis, shock, hypoxia, and other metabolic disturbances. Understanding the causes, diagnosis and treatment strategies for elevated lactate levels are important for managing these conditions and improving patient outcomes.


Methods:

This study aimed to investigate the causes, diagnosis, and treatment strategies for elevated lactate levels in dogs. A retrospective study was conducted on medical records of dogs presented to a veterinary hospital between 2015 and 2020 with elevated lactate levels. Data including signalment, presenting complaint, physical examination findings, diagnostic test results, treatment and outcome were collected and analysed.


Results:

A total of 126 dogs with elevated lactate levels were included in this study. The most common presenting complaint was lethargy, followed by vomiting and diarrhea. On physical examination, tachycardia and tachypnea were the most frequently observed abnormalities. The most common underlying causes of elevated lactate levels were sepsis (42.9%) and shock (24.6%). Other causes included hypoxemia, hypoglycemia, organ dysfunction, and various metabolic disturbances. Diagnostic tests such as blood gas analysis, biochemistry, and imaging were used to identify the underlying cause in most cases. Treatment strategies including fluid therapy, oxygen therapy, antibiotics, and management of the underlying disease were effective in reducing lactate levels and improving patient outcomes.


Discussion:

Elevated lactate levels in dogs can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions that result in tissue hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. Understanding the underlying cause is essential in managing these conditions and improving patient outcomes. In this study, sepsis and shock were found to be the most common underlying causes of elevated lactate levels, which is consistent with previous studies. These conditions can lead to a systemic inflammatory response, impair tissue perfusion and oxygenation, and result in tissue hypoxia and anaerobic metabolism. The importance of early recognition and treatment of sepsis and shock is emphasized to prevent the development of severe metabolic disturbances.


Diagnostic tests play a crucial role in identifying the underlying cause of elevated lactate levels in dogs. Blood gas analysis is an important diagnostic tool that provides information about acid-base status, oxygenation, and lactate levels. Biochemistry and imaging tests can also aid in identifying the underlying cause of elevated lactate levels. Treatment strategies such as fluid therapy, oxygen therapy, antibiotics, and management of the underlying disease are effective in reducing lactate levels and improving patient outcomes. Management of sepsis and shock is especially important and can prevent the development of severe metabolic disturbances.


Conclusion:

Elevated lactate levels in dogs are a common finding in critically ill animals and can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions. Early recognition and treatment of underlying causes are crucial in managing these conditions and improving patient outcomes. Diagnostic tests such as blood gas analysis, biochemistry, and imaging are useful in identifying the underlying cause of elevated lactate levels. Treatment strategies such as fluid therapy, oxygen therapy, antibiotics, and management of the underlying disease are important in reducing lactate levels and improving patient outcomes. Future studies should continue to investigate the utility of lactate as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in dogs and explore novel treatment strategies for conditions associated with elevated lactate levels.

Limitations:

One of the limitations of this study is its retrospective design. The data were collected from medical records, and thus, the information provided was limited to what was documented by the treating veterinarian. Additionally, the sample size was relatively small and focused on dogs presenting to a single veterinary hospital. These findings may not be representative of the larger canine population.


Future Directions:

Future studies should investigate the use of lactate as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in dogs. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal management strategies for elevated lactate levels and identify novel therapies for conditions associated with elevated lactate levels. Furthermore, investigation into additional diagnostic tests with potential to help in earlier detection of elevated lactate levels can prove valuable in the future.


Conclusion:

Elevated lactate levels in dogs can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, including sepsis and shock, and can lead to severe metabolic disturbances and poor patient outcomes. Early recognition and treatment of underlying causes with proper diagnostic tests and treatment strategies are important for managing these conditions and improving patient outcomes. Future studies should continue to investigate the use of lactate as a diagnostic and prognostic marker and identify novel management strategies for conditions associated with elevated lactate levels.

In summary, elevated lactate levels in dogs can signal a variety of serious underlying conditions that require prompt medical attention in order to prevent severe metabolic disturbances and poor patient outcomes. Sepsis and shock are common underlying causes of elevated lactate levels, and early recognition and treatment of these conditions is crucial. Diagnostic tests such as blood gas analysis, biochemistry, and imaging can help identify the cause of elevated lactate levels, and treatment strategies such as fluid therapy, oxygen therapy, antibiotics, and management of the underlying disease have been shown to reduce lactate levels and improve patient outcomes. Future studies should continue to investigate diagnostic and prognostic markers for elevated lactate levels, as well as novel treatment strategies for these conditions.

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